Oxygen and carbon isotope and Sr/Ca signatures of high-latitude Permian to Jurassic calcite fossils from New Zealand and New Caledonia
Ullman et al
Calcite fossils from New Zealand and New Caledonia provide insight into the Permian to Jurassic climatic history of Southern High Latitudes (southern HL) and Triassic Southern Intermediate Latitudes (southern IL). These results permit comparison with widely studied, coeval sections in Low Latitudes (LL) and IL. Oxygen isotope ratios of well-preserved shell materials indicate a partially pronounced Sea Surface Temperature (SST) gradient in the Permian, whereas for the Triassic no indication of cold climates in the southern HL is found. The Late Jurassic of New Zealand is characterized by a slight warming in the Oxfordian–Kimmeridgian and a subsequent cooling trend in the Tithonian. Systematic variations in the δ13C values of southern HL samples are in concert with those from LL sections and confirm the global nature of the carbon isotope signature and changes in the long-term carbon cycle reported earlier.
Systematic changes of Sr/Ca ratios in Late Triassic brachiopods, falling from 1.19 mmol/mol in the Oretian (early Norian) to 0.67 mmol/mol in the Warepan (late Norian) and subsequently increasing to 1.10 mmol/mol in the Otapirian (~ Rhaetian), are observed. Also Sr/Ca ratios of Late Jurassic belemnite genera Belemnopsis and Hibolithes show synchronous changes in composition that may be attributed to secular variations in the seawater Sr/Ca ratio. For the two belemnite genera an increase from 1.17 mmol/mol in the Middle Heterian (~ Oxfordian) to 1.78 mmol/mol in the Mangaoran (~ late Middle Tithonian) and a subsequent decrease to 1.51 mmol/mol in the Waikatoan (~ Late Tithonian) is documented.