Carbon isotopic excursions and detailed ammonoid and conodont biostratigraphies around Smithian–Spathian boundary in the Bac Thuy Formation, Vietnam
Komatsu et al
The Smithian–Spathian boundary is indicated by the first occurrence of the ammonoid Tirolites cf. cassianus in the Olenekian Bac Thuy Formation, northeastern Vietnam. The boundary is intercalated within organic-rich dark gray mudstone that accumulated under anoxic to dysoxic conditions in the An Chau and Nanpanjiang Basins on the South China Block. In Lang Son area, three conodont zones, Novispathodus ex gr. waageni, Novispathodus ex gr. pingdingshanensis, and Icriospathodus collinsoni, are recognized in the formation. The Smithian–Spathian boundary is intercalated within N. ex gr. pingdingshanensis conodont Zone. The positive excursion inδ13C with values increasing from around − 2.3‰ to + 5.7‰ was recorded in the uppermost Smithian Xenoceltites variocostatus ammonoid beds and N. ex gr. pingdingshanensis conodont Zone. The δ13C values decrease across the Smithian–Spathian boundary. These δ13C isotopic patterns are correlated with well-known positive excursions around the Smithian–Spathian boundary globally.