Seawater temperatures and carbon isotope variations in central European basins at the Middle–Late Jurassic transition (Late Callovian–Early Kimmeridgian)
Oxygen and carbon isotope values and elemental ratios of well-preserved belemnite rostra, brachiopod shells and bulk-carbonates from the Upper Callovian–Lower Kimmeridgian of the Polish Jura Chain, Kujawy (Poland) and Swabian Alb (Germany) are investigated to reconstruct environmental conditions and perturbations in the marine carbon cycle. Belemnite δ18O values show relatively constant temperatures (ca. 12 °C) of bottom waters in the Polish Jura Chain basin during a major part of the Late Callovian–Middle Oxfordian, except for a short-term cooling (to ca. 9 °C) at the Callovian–Oxfordian transition. Belemnite and brachiopod δ18O values show a gradual increase in temperature during the Submediterranean Late Oxfordian; the highest temperatures (ca. 16 °C) are calculated for the Submediterranean Oxfordian–Kimmeridgian transition. Belemnite and brachiopod Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios are disregarded as a paleotemperature proxy because of their weak correlation with δ18O values.
The belemnite and brachiopod isotope data confirm that the carbon isotope composition of belemnite rostra is affected by a metabolic effect, which results in a depletion of belemnite calcite in the 13C isotope. Belemnite rostra are considered, nevertheless, as a valuable tracer of temporal variations in the carbon isotope composition of marine carbonates. Belemnite δ13C data show the presence of two positive excursions (in the Upper Callovian and the Middle Oxfordian) in the carbon isotope record of peri-Tethyan carbonates. The excursions are divided by a Lower Oxfordian interval characterized by decreased δ13C values. This is most likely a regional feature caused by upwelling. Lowest belemnite and brachiopod δ13C values are observed in the lower part of the Submediterranean Upper Oxfordian and are linked to a well-mixed state of the seawater in the basins studied. The carbon isotope record of bulk carbonates differs from those of belemnites and brachiopods probably because of strong variations in carbonate production in the Polish Jura Chain basin.