The Meso-Neoarchaean Belomorian eclogite province: Tectonic position and geodynamic evolution
Mints et al
The aim of this paper is to review the main features of the Meso-Neoarchaean Belomorian eclogite province (BEP) in the northeastern Fennoscandian Shield, including regional and local geology, geochemistry, petrology and geochronology and to compare the Belomorian eclogites with Precambrian eclogites elsewhere. Two eclogite associations have been recognized within Belomorian TTG gneisses: (1) the subduction-type Salma association and (2) Gridino eclogitized mafic dykes. Protoliths of the Salma eclogites represent a sequence comprising gabbro, Fe–Ti gabbro and troctolites, formed at ~ 2.9 Ga in a slow-spreading ridge setting (like the Southwest Indian Ridge). The main subduction and eclogite-facies events occurred between ~ 2.87 and ~ 2.82 Ga. Injection of mafic magma into an active continental margin setting, recorded by the Gridino dyke swarm, is attributed to subduction of a mid-ocean ridge, commencing at 2.87 Ga. Crustal delamination of the active margin and subsequent involvement of the lower crust in subduction between 2.87 and 2.82 Ga ago caused high-pressure metamorphism of the Gridino dykes, culminating in eclogite-facies conditions between 2.82 and 2.78 Ga and accompanying amalgamation of the Karelia, Kola and Khetolamba blocks and formation of the Mesoarchaean Belomorian accretionary–collisional orogen. The clockwise P–T paths of the Salma and Gridino associations cross the granulite-facies P–T field. Detailed metamorphic studies indicate a complicated post-eclogite history with thermal events and fluid infiltration, related to plume activity at 2.72–2.70, ~ 2.4 and ~ 1.9 Ga. The eclogite assemblages were exhumed to mid-to-lower crustal depths at ~ 1.7 Ga, while erosion or younger tectonic events were responsible for final exhumation to the surface. Comparison of P–T–t paths and data for peak metamorphic parameters demonstrates the general similarity of the Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic eclogites worldwide and their association with anomalously “hot” environments. The occurrence of high-T conditions during eclogite-facies metamorphism can be attributed to either subduction of a mid-ocean ridge (Archaean, BEP) or to interaction with mantle plumes (Proterozoic).